Advertisement

Mapping Studies to Estimate Health-State Utilities From Non–Preference-Based Outcome Measures: A Systematic Review on How Repeated Measurements are Taken Into Account

Published:November 10, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2022.09.2477

      Highlights

      • Authors often use data sets with repeated measurements per individual over time to develop their mapping algorithms. Nevertheless, our review suggests that many authors do not account for the interdependence of data or do not clearly describe the methods used.
      • This updated systematic review of mapping articles found that, when data sets with repeated measurements are used, authors often only use 1 time point in the estimation data set and another time point for its validation, hence ignoring that health states with different levels of severity may be present only at a specific time point.
      • When multiple time points are used, often the methodological implications are not explicitly considered; this means that variance-covariance matrices from these models—often used in probabilistic sensitivity analyses—are not accurate. Mapping guidelines should expand on how to deal with repeated measurements, and journals should make sure that these updated guidelines are followed.

      Abstract

      Objectives

      Mapping algorithms are developed using data sets containing patient responses to a preference-based questionnaire and another health-related quality-of-life questionnaire. When data sets include repeated measurements from the same individuals over time, the assumption of observations’ independence, required by standard models, is violated, and standard errors are underestimated. This review aimed to identify how studies deal with methodological challenges of repeated measurements, provide an overview of practice to date, and potential implications for future work.

      Methods

      We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, specialized databases, and previous systematic reviews. A data template was used to extract, among others, start and target instruments if the data set(s) used for estimation and validation had repeated measurements per patient, used regression techniques, and which (if any) adjustments were made for repeated measurements.

      Results

      We identified 278 publications developing at least 1 mapping algorithm. Of the 278 publications, 121 used a data set with repeated measurements, among which 92 used multiple time points for estimation, and 39 selected specific time points to have 1 observation per participant. A total of 36 studies did not account for repeated measurements. An adjustment was conducted using cluster-robust standard errors (21), random-effects models (30), generalized estimating equations (7), and other methods (7).

      Conclusions

      The inconsistent use of methods to account for interdependent observations in the literature indicates that mapping guidelines should include recommendations on how to deal with repeated measurements, and journals should update their guidelines accordingly.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Value in Health
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Mpundu-Kaambwa C.
        • Chen G.
        • Huynh E.
        • Russo R.
        • Ratcliffe J.
        A review of preference-based measures for the assessment of quality of life in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.
        Qual Life Res. 2018; 27: 1781-1799
        • Lamu A.N.
        • Gamst-Klaussen T.
        • Olsen J.A.
        Preference weighting of health state values: what difference does it make, and why?.
        Value Health. 2017; 20: 451-457
        • Brazier J.
        • Ratcliffe J.
        • Saloman J.
        • Tsuchiya A.
        Measuring and Valuing Health Benefits for Economic Evaluation.
        Oxford University Press, Oxford, England2017
        • Wailoo A.J.
        • Hernandez-Alava M.
        • Manca A.
        • et al.
        Mapping to estimate health-state utility from non-preference-based outcome measures: an ISPOR Good Practices for Outcomes Research task force report.
        Value Health. 2017; 20: 18-27
        • Holmes Finch W.
        • Bolin J.E.
        • Kelley K.
        Multilevel Modeling Using R.
        CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL2019
        • Longworth L.
        • Rowen D.
        Mapping to obtain EQ-5D utility values for use in NICE health technology assessments.
        Value Health. 2013; 16: 202-210
        • Hernandez Alava M.
        • Wailoo A.
        • Pudney S.
        • Gray L.
        • Manca A.
        Mapping clinical outcomes to generic preference-based outcome measures: development and comparison of methods.
        Health Technol Assess. 2020; 24: 1-68
        • Longworth L.
        • Rowen D.
        NICE DSU Technical Support Document 10: The Use of Mapping Methods to Estimate Health State Utility Values.
        National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), London, England2011
        • Petrou S.
        • Rivero-Arias O.
        • Dakin H.
        • et al.
        The MAPS reporting statement for studies mapping onto generic preference-based outcome measures: explanation and elaboration.
        Pharmacoeconomics. 2015; 33: 993-1011
        • Dakin H.
        Review of studies mapping from quality of life or clinical measures to EQ-5D: an online database.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2013; 11: 151
        • Dakin H.
        • Abel L.
        • Burns R.
        • Yang Y.
        Review and critical appraisal of studies mapping from quality of life or clinical measures to EQ-5D: an online database and application of the MAPS statement.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2018; 16: 31
        • Brazier J.E.
        • Yang Y.
        • Tsuchiya A.
        • Rowen D.L.
        A review of studies mapping (or cross walking) non-preference based measures of health to generic preference-based measures.
        Eur J Health Econ. 2010; 11: 215-225
        • Mukuria C.
        • Rowen D.
        • Harnan S.
        • et al.
        An updated systematic review of studies mapping (or cross-walking) measures of health-related quality of life to generic preference-based measures to generate utility values.
        Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2019; 17: 295-313
      1. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed January 17, 2022.

        • Kharroubi S.A.
        • Edlin R.
        • Meads D.
        • McCabe C.
        Bayesian statistical models to estimate EQ-5D utility scores from EORTC QLQ data in myeloma.
        Pharm Stat. 2018; 17: 358-371
        • Park S.
        • Park E.
        • Suh H.S.
        • Ha D.
        • Lee E.
        Development of a transformation model to derive general population-based utility: mapping the pruritus-visual analog scale (VAS) to the EQ-5D utility.
        J Eval Clin Pract. 2017; 23: 755-761
        • Carreon L.Y.
        • Bratcher K.R.
        • Das N.
        • Nienhuis J.B.
        • Glassman S.D.
        Estimating EQ-5D values from the Neck Disability Index and numeric rating scales for neck and arm pain.
        J Neurosurg Spine. 2014; 21: 394-399
        • Khairnar R.
        • Pugh S.L.
        • Sandler H.M.
        • et al.
        Mapping expanded prostate cancer index composite to EQ5D inform economic evaluations in prostate cancer: Secondary analysis of NRG/RTOG 0415.
        PLoS One. 2021; 16e0249123
        • Nahvijou A.
        • Safari H.
        • Yousefi M.
        • Rajabi M.
        • Arab-Zozani M.
        • Ameri H.
        Mapping the cancer-specific FACT-B onto the generic SF-6Dv2.
        Breast Cancer. 2021; 28: 130-136
        • Ahadi M.S.
        • Vahidpour N.
        • Togha M.
        • et al.
        Assessment of utility in migraine: mapping the migraine-specific questionnaire to the EQ-5D-5L.
        Value Health Reg Issues. 2021; 25: 57-63
        • Franken M.D.
        • de Hond A.
        • Degeling K.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of the performance of algorithms mapping EORTC QLQ-C30 onto the EQ-5D index in a metastatic colorectal cancer cost-effectiveness model.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2020; 18: 240
        • Kularatna S.
        • Senanayake S.
        • Chen G.
        • Parsonage W.
        Mapping the Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire (MLHFQ) to EQ-5D-5L in patients with heart failure.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2020; 18: 115
        • Lamu A.N.
        Does linear equating improve prediction in mapping? Crosswalking MacNew onto EQ-5D-5L value sets.
        Eur J Health Econ. 2020; 21: 903-915
        • Liu T.
        • Li S.
        • Wang M.
        • Sun Q.
        • Chen G.
        Mapping the Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-BR53 onto the EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D utility scores.
        Patient. 2020; 13: 537-555
        • Su J.
        • Liu T.
        • Li S.
        • Zhao Y.
        • Kuang Y.
        A mapping study in mainland China: predicting EQ-5D-5L utility scores from the psoriasis disability index.
        J Med Econ. 2020; 23: 737-743
        • Sweeney R.
        • Chen G.
        • Gold L.
        • Mensah F.
        • Wake M.
        Mapping PedsQLTM scores onto CHU9D utility scores: estimation, validation and a comparison of alternative instrument versions.
        Qual Life Res. 2020; 29: 639-652
        • Xu R.H.
        • Wong E.L.Y.
        • Jin J.
        • Dou Y.
        • Dong D.
        Mapping of the EORTC QLQ-C30 to EQ-5D-5L index in patients with lymphomas.
        Eur J Health Econ. 2020; 21: 1363-1373
        • Abdin E.
        • Chong S.A.
        • Seow E.
        • Verma S.
        • Tan K.B.
        • Subramaniam M.
        Mapping the positive and negative syndrome scale scores to EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D utility scores in patients with schizophrenia.
        Qual Life Res. 2019; 28: 177-186
        • Vilsboll A.W.
        • Kragh N.
        • Hahn-Pedersen J.
        • Jensen C.E.
        Mapping dermatology life quality index (DLQI) scores to EQ-5D utility scores using data of patients with atopic dermatitis from the National Health and Wellness Study.
        Qual Life Res. 2020; 29: 2529-2539
        • Ameri H.
        • Yousefi M.
        • Yaseri M.
        • Nahvijou A.
        • Arab M.
        • Akbari Sari A.
        Mapping the cancer-specific QLQ-C30 onto the generic EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D in colorectal cancer patients.
        Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2019; 19: 89-96
        • Robinson T.
        • Oluboyede Y.
        Estimating CHU-9D utility scores from the WAItE: a mapping algorithm for economic evaluation.
        Value Health. 2019; 22: 239-246
        • Sharma R.
        • Gu Y.
        • Sinha K.
        • Aghdaee M.
        • Parkinson B.
        Mapping the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire onto the Child Health Utility 9D in a large study of children.
        Qual Life Res. 2019; 28: 2429-2441
        • Yang Q.
        • Yu X.X.
        • Zhang W.
        • Li H.
        Mapping function from FACT-B to EQ-5D-5 L using multiple modelling approaches: data from breast cancer patients in China.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2019; 17: 153
        • Gamst-Klaussen T.
        • Lamu A.N.
        • Chen G.
        • Olsen J.A.
        Assessment of outcome measures for cost-utility analysis in depression: mapping depression scales onto the EQ-5D-5L.
        BJPsych Open. 2018; 4: 160-166
        • Kaambwa B.
        • Ratcliffe J.
        Predicting EuroQoL 5 dimensions 5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) utilities from older people’s quality of life brief questionnaire (OPQoL-brief) scores.
        Patient. 2018; 11: 39-54
        • Ara R.
        • Wailoo A.
        NICE DSU Technical Support Document 12: The Use of Health State Utility Values in Decision Models.
        National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2011
        • Lamu A.N.
        • Chen G.
        • Gamst-Klaussen T.
        • Olsen J.A.
        Do country-specific preference weights matter in the choice of mapping algorithms? The case of mapping the Diabetes-39 onto eight country-specific EQ-5D-5L value sets.
        Qual Life Res. 2018; 27: 1801-1814
        • Lamu A.N.
        • Olsen J.A.
        Testing alternative regression models to predict utilities: mapping the QLQ-C30 onto the EQ-5D-5L and the SF-6D.
        Qual Life Res. 2018; 27: 2823-2839
        • Moore A.
        • Young C.A.
        • Hughes D.A.
        Mapping ALSFRS-R and ALSUI to EQ-5D in patients with motor neuron disease.
        Value Health. 2018; 21: 1322-1329
        • Peak J.
        • Goranitis I.
        • Day E.
        • Copello A.
        • Freemantle N.
        • Frew E.
        Predicting health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5 L) and capability wellbeing (ICECAP-A) in the context of opiate dependence using routine clinical outcome measures: CORE-OM, LDQ and TOP.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2018; 16: 106
        • Wee H.L.
        • Yeo K.K.
        • Chong K.J.
        • Khoo E.Y.H.
        • Cheung Y.B.
        Mean rank, equipercentile, and regression mapping of World Health Organization quality of life brief (WHOQOL-BREF) to EuroQoL 5 dimensions 5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) utilities.
        Med Decis Making. 2018; 38: 319-333
        • Wijnen B.F.M.
        • Mosweu I.
        • Majoie M.H.J.M.
        • et al.
        A comparison of the responsiveness of EQ-5D-5L and the QOLIE-31P and mapping of QOLIE-31P to EQ-5D-5L in epilepsy.
        Eur J Health Econ. 2018; 19: 861-870
        • Collado-Mateo D.
        • Chen G.
        • Garcia-Gordillo M.A.
        • et al.
        Fibromyalgia and quality of life: mapping the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire to the preference-based instruments.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017; 15: 114
        • Crump R.T.
        • Lai E.
        • Liu G.
        • Janjua A.
        • Sutherland J.M.
        Establishing utility values for the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) using a crosswalk to the EuroQol-five-dimensional questionnaire-three-level version (EQ-5D-3L).
        Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2017; 7: 480-487
        • Dzingina M.D.
        • McCrone P.
        • Higginson I.J.
        Does the EQ-5D capture the concerns measured by the palliative care outcome scale? Mapping the palliative care outcome scale onto the EQ-5D using statistical methods.
        Palliat Med. 2017; 31: 716-725
        • Joyce V.R.
        • Sun H.
        • Barnett P.G.
        • et al.
        Mapping MOS-HIV to HUI3 and EQ-5D-3L in patients with HIV.
        MDM Policy Pract. 2017; 22381468317716440
        • Kaambwa B.
        • Chen G.
        • Ratcliffe J.
        • Iezzi A.
        • Maxwell A.
        • Richardson J.
        Mapping between the Sydney asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ-S) and five multi-attribute utility instruments (MAUIs).
        Pharmacoeconomics. 2017; 35: 111-124
        • Wong C.K.H.
        • Cheung P.W.H.
        • Samartzis D.
        • et al.
        Mapping the SRS-22r questionnaire onto the EQ-5D-5L utility score in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12e0175847
        • Chen G.
        • Finger R.P.
        • Holloway E.E.
        • Iezzi A.
        • Richardson J.
        Estimating utility weights for the vision related quality of life index.
        Optom Vis Sci. 2016; 93: 1495-1501
        • Acaster S.
        • Pinder B.
        • Mukuria C.
        • Copans A.
        Mapping the EQ-5D index from the cystic fibrosis questionnaire-revised using multiple modelling approaches.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2015; 13: 33
        • Chen G.
        • Iezzi A.
        • McKie J.
        • Khan M.A.
        • Richardson J.
        Diabetes and quality of life: comparing results from utility instruments and Diabetes-39.
        Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015; 109: 326-333
        • Young T.A.
        • Mukuria C.
        • Rowen D.
        • Brazier J.E.
        • Longworth L.
        Mapping functions in health-related quality of life: mapping from two cancer-specific health-related quality-of-life instruments to EQ-5D-3L.
        Med Decis Making. 2015; 35: 912-926
        • Furber G.
        • Segal L.
        • Leach M.
        • Cocks J.
        Mapping scores from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to preference-based utility values.
        Qual Life Res. 2014; 23: 403-411
        • Kim S.H.
        • Kim S.O.
        • Lee S.I.
        • Jo M.W.
        Deriving a mapping algorithm for converting SF-36 scores to EQ-5D utility score in a Korean population.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2014; 12: 145
        • Longworth L.
        • Yang Y.
        • Young T.
        • et al.
        Use of generic and condition-specific measures of health-related quality of life in NICE decision-making: a systematic review, statistical modelling and survey.
        Health Technol Assess. 2014; 18: 1-224
        • Mihalopoulos C.
        • Chen G.
        • Iezzi A.
        • Khan M.A.
        • Richardson J.
        Assessing outcomes for cost-utility analysis in depression: comparison of five multi-attribute utility instruments with two depression-specific outcome measures.
        Br J Psychiatry. 2014; 205: 390-397
        • Voko Z.
        • Nemeth R.
        • Nagyjanosi L.
        • et al.
        Mapping the Nottingham health profile onto the preference-based EuroQol-5D instrument for patients with diabetes.
        Value Health Reg Issues. 2014; 4: 31-36
        • Yang Y.
        • Wong M.Y.
        • Lam C.L.
        • Wong C.K.
        Improving the mapping of condition-specific health-related quality of life onto SF-6D score.
        Qual Life Res. 2014; 23: 2343-2353
        • Kaambwa B.
        • Billingham L.
        • Bryan S.
        Mapping utility scores from the Barthel index.
        Eur J Health Econ. 2013; 14: 231-241
        • Kay S.
        • Tolley K.
        • Colayco D.
        • Khalaf K.
        • Anderson P.
        • Globe D.
        Mapping EQ-5D utility scores from the incontinence quality of life questionnaire among patients with neurogenic and idiopathic overactive bladder.
        Value Health. 2013; 16: 394-402
        • Teckle P.
        • McTaggart-Cowan H.
        • Van der Hoek K.
        • et al.
        Mapping the FACT-G cancer-specific quality of life instrument to the EQ-5D and SF-6D.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2013; 11: 203
        • Xie F.
        • Pullenayegum E.M.
        • Li S.C.
        • Hopkins R.
        • Thumboo J.
        • Lo N.N.
        Use of a disease-specific instrument in economic evaluations: mapping WOMAC onto the EQ-5D utility index.
        Value Health. 2010; 13: 873-878
        • Gartner F.R.
        • Marinus J.
        • van den Hout W.B.
        • Vleggeert-Lankamp C.
        • Stiggelbout A.M.
        The Cervical Radiculopathy Impact Scale: development and evaluation of a new functional outcome measure for cervical radicular syndrome.
        Disabil Rehabil. 2020; 42: 1894-1905
        • Mlcoch T.
        • Sedova L.
        • Stolfa J.
        • et al.
        Mapping the relationship between clinical and quality-of-life outcomes in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
        Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2017; 17: 203-211
        • Grochtdreis T.
        • Brettschneider C.
        • Hajek A.
        • Schierz K.
        • Hoyer J.
        • Koenig H.H.
        Mapping the Beck Depression Inventory to the EQ-5D-3L in patients with depressive disorders.
        J Ment Health Policy Econ. 2016; 19: 79-89
        • Lindkvist M.
        • Feldman I.
        Assessing outcomes for cost-utility analysis in mental health interventions: mapping mental health specific outcome measure GHQ-12 onto EQ-5D-3L.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2016; 14: 134
        • Rundell S.D.
        • Bresnahan B.W.
        • Heagerty P.J.
        • et al.
        Mapping a patient-reported functional outcome measure to a utility measure for comparative effectiveness and economic evaluations in older adults with low back pain.
        Med Decis Making. 2014; 34: 873-883
        • Oppe M.
        • Devlin N.
        • Black N.
        Comparison of the underlying constructs of the EQ-5D and Oxford Hip Score: implications for mapping.
        Value Health. 2011; 14: 884-891
        • Wijeysundera H.C.
        • Tomlinson G.
        • Norris C.M.
        • Ghali W.A.
        • Ko D.T.
        • Krahn M.D.
        Predicting EQ-5D utility scores from the Seattle Angina Questionnaire in coronary artery disease: a mapping algorithm using a Bayesian framework.
        Med Decis Making. 2011; 31: 481-493
        • Dixon P.
        • Hollingworth W.
        • Sparrow J.
        Mapping to quality of life and capability measures in cataract surgery patients: from cat-PROM5 to EQ-5D-3L, EQ-5D-5L, and ICECAP-O using mixture modelling.
        MDM Policy Pract. 2020; 52381468320915447
        • Gray L.A.
        • Hernandez Alava M.
        • Wailoo A.J.
        Mapping the EORTC QLQ-C30 to EQ-5D-3L in patients with breast cancer.
        BMC Cancer. 2021; 21: 1237
        • Yousefi M.
        • Behzadi Sheikhrobat Y.
        • Najafi S.
        • et al.
        Mapping catquest scores onto EQ-5D utility values in patients with cataract disease.
        Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016; 19
        https://www.sid.ir/paper/293586/en
        Date accessed: December 13, 2021
        • Boland M.R.
        • van Boven J.F.
        • Kocks J.W.
        • et al.
        Mapping the clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease questionnaire onto generic preference-based EQ-5D values.
        Value Health. 2015; 18: 299-307
        • Le Q.A.
        Probabilistic mapping of the health status measure SF-12 onto the health utility measure EQ-5D using the US-population-based scoring models.
        Qual Life Res. 2014; 23: 459-466
        • Hernández Alava M.
        • Wailoo A.
        • Wolfe F.
        • Michaud K.
        The relationship between EQ-5D, HAQ and pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
        Rheumatology. 2013; 52: 944-950
        • Askew R.L.
        • Swartz R.J.
        • Xing Y.
        • et al.
        Mapping FACT-melanoma quality-of-life scores to EQ-5D health utility weights.
        Value Health. 2011; 14: 900-906
        • Cheung Y.B.
        • Thumboo J.
        • Gao F.
        • et al.
        Mapping the English and Chinese versions of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-general to the EQ-5D utility index.
        Value Health. 2009; 12: 371-376
        • Sullivan P.W.
        • Ghushchyan V.
        Mapping the EQ-5D index from the SF-12: US general population preferences in a nationally representative sample.
        Med Decis Making. 2006; 26: 401-409
        • Coon C.
        • Bushmakin A.
        • Tatlock S.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of a crosswalk between the European quality of life five dimension five level and the menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire.
        Climacteric. 2018; 21: 566-573
        • Madan J.
        • Khan K.
        • Petrou S.
        • Lamb S.
        • Khan K.A.
        • Lamb S.E.
        Can mapping algorithms based on raw scores overestimate QALYs gained by treatment? A comparison of mappings between the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire and the EQ-5D-3L based on raw and differenced score data.
        Pharmacoeconomics. 2017; 35: 549-559
        • Hurst N.P.
        • Kind P.
        • Ruta D.
        • Hunter M.
        • Stubbings A.
        Measuring health-related quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis: validity, responsiveness and reliability of EuroQol (EQ-5D).
        Br J Rheumatol. 1997; 36: 551-559
        • Hoyle C.K.
        • Tabberer M.
        • Brooks J.
        Mapping the COPD assessment test onto EQ-5D.
        Value Health. 2016; 19: 469-477
        • Nair S.C.
        • Welsing P.M.
        • Marijnissen A.K.
        • et al.
        Does disease activity add to functional disability in estimation of utility for rheumatoid arthritis patients on biologic treatment?.
        Rheumatology. 2016; 55: 94-102
        • Versteegh M.M.
        • Leunis A.
        • Luime J.J.
        • Boggild M.
        • Uyl-de Groot C.A.
        • Stolk E.A.
        Mapping QLQ-C30, HAQ, and MSIS-29 on EQ-5D.
        Med Decis Making. 2012; 32: 554-568
        • Davison N.J.
        • Thompson A.J.
        • Turner A.J.
        • et al.
        Generating EQ-5D-3L utility scores from the dermatology life quality index: a mapping study in patients with psoriasis.
        Value Health. 2018; 21: 1010-1018
        • Oliveira Goncalves A.S.
        • Panteli D.
        • Neeb L.
        • Kurth T.
        • Aigner A.
        HIT-6 and EQ-5D-5L in patients with migraine: assessment of common latent constructs and development of a mapping algorithm.
        Eur J Health Econ. 2022; 23: 47-57
        • Pennington B.M.
        • Hernandez-Alava M.
        • Hykin P.
        • et al.
        Mapping from visual acuity to EQ-5D, EQ-5D with vision bolt-on, and VFQ-UI in patients with macular edema in the LEAVO trial.
        Value Health. 2020; 23: 928-935
        • Erim D.O.
        • Bennett A.V.
        • Gaynes B.N.
        • Basak R.S.
        • Usinger D.
        • Chen R.C.
        Mapping the Memorial Anxiety Scale for prostate cancer to the SF-6D.
        Qual Life Res. 2021; 30: 2919-2928
        • Ayala A.
        • Forjaz M.J.
        • Ramallo-Farina Y.
        • Martin-Fernandez J.
        • Garcia-Perez L.
        • Bilbao A.
        Response mapping methods to estimate the EQ-5D-5L from the western Ontario McMaster universities osteoarthritis in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis.
        Value Health. 2021; 24: 874-883
        • Bilbao A.
        • Martin-Fernandez J.
        • Garcia-Perez L.
        • et al.
        Mapping WOMAC onto the EQ-5D-5L utility index in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis.
        Value Health. 2020; 23: 379-387
        • Martín-Fernández J.
        • Morey-Montalvo M.
        • Tomás-García N.
        • et al.
        Mapping analysis to predict EQ-5D-5 L utility values based on the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and Oxford Knee Score (OKS) questionnaires in the Spanish population suffering from lower limb osteoarthritis.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2020; 18: 184
        • Shi Y.
        • Thompson J.
        • Walker A.S.
        • Paton N.I.
        • Cheung Y.B.
        • EARNEST Trial Team
        Mapping the medical outcomes study HIV health survey (MOS-HIV) to the EuroQoL 5 dimension (EQ-5D-3 L) utility index.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2019; 17: 83
        • Ward Fuller G.
        • Hernandez M.
        • Pallot D.
        • Lecky F.
        • Stevenson M.
        • Gabbe B.
        Health state preference weights for the Glasgow outcome scale following traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and mapping study.
        Value Health. 2017; 20: 141-151
        • Frew E.J.
        • Harrison M.
        • Rossello Roig M.
        • Martin T.P.
        Providing an extended use of an otological-specific outcome instrument to derive cost-effectiveness estimates of treatment.
        Clin Otolaryngol. 2015; 40: 593-599
        • Cheung Y.B.
        • Luo N.
        • Ng R.
        • Lee C.F.
        Mapping the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-breast (FACT-B) to the 5-level EuroQol Group’s 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) utility index in a multi-ethnic Asian population.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2014; 12: 180
        • Lee L.
        • Kaneva P.
        • Latimer E.
        • Feldman L.S.
        Mapping the gastrointestinal quality of life index to short-form 6-D utility scores.
        J Surg Res. 2014; 186: 135-141
        • Hawton A.
        • Green C.
        • Telford C.
        • Zajicek J.
        • Wright D.
        Using the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale to estimate health state utility values: mapping from the MSIS-29, version 2, to the EQ-5D and the SF-6D.
        Value Health. 2012; 15: 1084-1091
        • Hawton A.
        • Green C.
        • Telford C.J.
        • Wright D.E.
        • Zajicek J.P.
        The use of multiple sclerosis condition-specific measures to inform health policy decision-making: mapping from the MSWS-12 to the EQ-5D.
        Mult Scler. 2012; 18: 853-861
        • Barton G.R.
        • Sach T.H.
        • Jenkinson C.
        • Avery A.J.
        • Doherty M.
        • Muir K.R.
        Do estimates of cost-utility based on the EQ-5D differ from those based on the mapping of utility scores?.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2008; 6: 51
        • Cheung Y.B.
        • Tan H.X.
        • Luo N.
        • Wee H.L.
        • Koh G.C.H.
        Mapping the Shah-modified Barthel Index to the health utility index mark III by the mean rank method.
        Qual Life Res. 2019; 28: 3177-3185
        • Lee C.F.
        • Ng R.
        • Luo N.
        • Cheung Y.B.
        Development of conversion functions mapping the FACT-B total score to the EQ-5D-5L utility value by three linking methods and comparison with the ordinary least square method.
        Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2018; 16: 685-695
        • Gray L.A.
        • Hernandez Alava M.
        • Wailoo A.J.
        Development of methods for the mapping of utilities using mixture models: mapping the AQLQ-S to the EQ-5D-5L and the HUI3 in patients with asthma.
        Value Health. 2018; 21: 748-757