The Prader-Willi Syndrome Anxiousness and Distress Behaviors Questionnaire: Development and Psychometric Validation

Published:October 04, 2022DOI:



      To facilitate the development of new therapies for Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), we sought to develop a reliable and valid assessment of anxiousness and distress, common characteristics that have a significant negative impact on individuals with PWS and their families.


      The PWS Anxiousness and Distress Behaviors Questionnaire (PADQ) was developed with extensive input from clinical experts, as well as caregivers of individuals with PWS, who participated in iterative sets of qualitative interviews. The psychometric properties of the PADQ were subsequently demonstrated in a cross-sectional evaluation using data from the Global PWS Registry provided by > 400 caregivers and confirmed using data from a phase 3 clinical trial of an oxytocin analogue (intranasal carbetocin, LV-101).


      Qualitative interview participants consistently endorsed the content of the PADQ and were confident they could accurately respond to each item based on their observations of their child’s behavior. Analysis of cross-sectional data supported the computation of a total PADQ score, as well as the reliability and validity of the measure. The results of analyses using longitudinal clinical trial data confirmed these properties and provided evidence for the responsiveness of the PADQ, further supporting its appropriateness for the evaluation of new treatments targeting anxiousness and distress in PWS.


      The current body of evidence supports the conclusion that the PADQ measures observable behaviors that are meaningful to patients and their families and provides a valid and reliable method to assess beneficial treatment effects for some of the most challenging behaviors associated with PWS.


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